Spur gear materials applications and their advantages

Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth and are mounted on parallel shafts. Many spur gears can be used in case if we want large gear reduction. Spur gears are used for reduction or increase, torque multiplication, resolution and accuracy enhancement for positioning system. The teeth run parallel to the gear axis and can only transfer motion between parallel axis gear sets.

Spur Gear Material :

Gear composition is determined by application, including gear's service, rotation speed, accuracy and more.

  • Cast iron provides durability and ease of manufacture.
  • Alloy steel provides superior durability and composition resistance. Minerals may be added to the alloy to further harden the gear.
  • Cast steel provides easier fabrication, strong working loads and vibration resistance.
  • Carbon steels are inexpensive and strong, but they are susceptible to corrosion.
  • Aluminium is used when low gear inertia with some resiliency is required.
  • Brass is inexpensive, easy to mold and corrosion resistant.
  • Copper is easily shaped, conductive and corrosion resistant. Strength of the gears would increase if it is bronzed.
  • Plastic is inexpensive, corrosion resistant, quite operationally and can overcome missing teeth and misalignment. Plastic is less robust than metal and is vulnarable to temperature changes and chemical corrosion.

Spur Gear Applications:

Spur gears are having wide range of applications. They can be given as follows :
  1. Metal cutting machines.
  2. Power plants.
  3. Mechanical clocks and watches.
  4. Fuel pumps.
  5. Washing machines.
  6. Gear motors and gear pumps.
  7. Material handling equipments.
  8. Automobile gearboxes.
  9. Steel mills.
  10. Rolling mills.
The following application requirements should be taken into considerations with the workload and environment of gear set in mind.
  1. Power, torque and velocity consistency and output peaks of the gear drive so the gear meets the mechanical requirements. Spur gears design constraints limit their ability to transfer energy at higher speeds and torques.
  2. Inertia of the gear through acceleration and deceleration. Heaviour gears can be hardened to stop or reverse.
  3. Precision requirement of the gears, including gear pitch, shaft diameter, pressure angle and tooth layout.
  4. Noise elimination.
  5. Mounting requirements.
  6. Corrosive environments.
  7. Temperature exposure.
  8. Vibration and shock resistant.

Advantages of Spur Gears:

  1. Spur gears have high transmission capacity with high efficiency.
  2. They are easy to install.
  3. They are compact.
  4. They have constant velocity ratio.
  5. They are highly reliable.
  6. They are used to transmit high power.

Disadvantages of Supr gears:

  1. Costly as compared to belt drives.
  2. Limited centre distance.
  3. When operating at higher speeds they produce higher noise.
  4. Large amount of stress is experienced on gear teeth.
  5. They cannot be used for long distance power transmission.
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Sujit Kadus

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