Basic Components of Pneumatic System

Pneumatic system plays an important role in Industrial area. It has lots of advantages and hence can be efficiently used in Industry.
General layout of Pneumatic System

Pneumatic system basically consist following main components :

Air : As we are using pneumatic system air is medium of transfer of energy.

Compressor : Compressor is said to be the heart of  pneumatic system. Without compressor, it is impossible to run the system. Compressor compresses the air coming from the surroundings and pressurizes it for its use.


Air Reservoir Tank: Reservoir tank is used to store the air that is compressed by air. As per the requirements, size of reservoir tank is used. Mostly in Industries large storage tanks/ reservoir tanks are used, because of large need of air in pneumatic system.

FRL Unit : FRL unit stands for Filter, Regulator and Lubricator. Figure below shows a FRL unit. Starting from left, first component is Filter followed by Regulator and Lubricator.

FRL Unit

  • Filter filters the impure air coming inside the compressor for its proper working. Generally, filter contains a porous gauge which acts as obstacle for the particles coming inside with the air. The size of gauge is mainly in microns to obtain almost pure air.
  • Regulator regulated the flow of air, that is it controls the rate of air flow through the pipes. A pressure gauge mounted on the Regulator indicates the pressure flowing through it.
  • Lubricator unit is used for lubrication purpose. Unlike hydraulic system, pneumatic system doesn't make use for its fluid as lubricator. So in order to keep moving parts live, some amount of lubrication is necessary and it is done by Lubricator. Small amount of drops are released with the flowing air. As air moves ahead, Lubricating oil sticks to the moving parts and lubrication is done.

DCV: DCV stands for Direction Control Valve. As the name suggests, DCV is used for controlling the direction of flowing air through the system. As per requirement, the valve is opened and closed.

Actuators: Actuators are nothing but the piston cylinder arrangement. Now-a-days, thousands of actuators are present in market with their respective specifications. Single acting spring return cylinders are more economical as compared to others. Actuators are used for linear motion, that is for pulling or pushing purposes. Cylinders are fitted with pistons of different diameters and strokes of various lengths.

Spring return cylinder


Sujit Kadus

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