Construction and Working of Laser Beam Machining

First of all, we will see what is LASER ?
LASER stands for "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation".
LASER is a effect of resonant effect and the output is a coherent electromagnetic field.


Laser beam machining setup is shown in figure below.
Laser Beam machining
Laser Beam Machining

It consists of a stimulating light source (Xenon flash lamp) and a laser rod.
Laser rod or Laser tube consist of pair of mirrors, which are placed at each end of a tube.
This setup also consists of a flash tube/lamp (i.e. energy source), laser, power source, focusing source and cooling system.
The whole setup is fitted an enclosure which has highly reflective surface inside it.
The laser used in the process may be solid, liquid or gaseous type. The solid type carries reflective coatings at their ends and gaseous type produces continuous laser beams. This laser beam produced is suitable for welding and cutting operations.
The most commonly used laser is Ruby.
In some applications, helium-neon laser is also used.


In the operation of machine, the optical energy (light) radiated from the flash lamp is focused on the laser rod (tube), from where it is reflected with the help of mirrors and accelerated in its path.
This reflected light is emitted in the form of slightly divergent beam. 
A lens is placed in the path of this beam of light which converges and focus the light beam on the component that is to be machined i.e. workpiece.
This impact of laser beam on the workpiece melts the work material and due to this it vaporizes.
Therefore, it is also called as thermal cutting process.

Laser Machining System:

The figures shown below shows the different types of laser machining systems.
Fig (a) is a spiral flash lamp in which a ruby rod is kept inside the lamp.
Fig (b) is a straight flash lamp and cylindrical mirror with elliptical cross-section.
Fig (c) is another laser machining system in which circular reflecting cylinder is shown.
Fig (d) shows four flash lamps arranged around the ruby rod.

Sujit Kadus

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