Mini Project on Robotic Gripper Mechanism

Gripper is a mechanical device which enables us to hold an object to be manipulated. Gripper can be described in much more easier way by thinking its a human hand. Just like fingers of hand, gripper enables us to hold, tighten, release and handle an object. A gripper can be a part of fixed automation system or it may be attached to the robot for performing specific operations.
There are a variety of grippers available in industry.

Operating Principle of Gripper

The opening and closing of fingers of gripper can be actuated either by pivoting or linear/translational movement.
Pivoting Movement : In this movement, the rotation of fingers is concerned with the pivoted points that are fixed for providing opening and closing action. To achieve this movement, it uses linkage mechanism.
Linear/Translational Movement : In this movement, the gripper jaw moves parallel to the gripper body. These grippers are used in most of the applications. These type of grippers are more accurate than other types of grippers.
Mini Project on Robotic Gripper Mechanism |
Linkage Actuation

Linkage Actuation

The design of linkage actuation helps to find out the conversion of the mechanical gripper's force into the gripping force and the time taken by them to actuate the gripper and maximum capability to open the finger.
There are number of designs available for linkage actuation, some of them are shown in above figure.

Now moving towards the video, we will see how the gripper works. Here we will see, few mechanisms of robotic gripper and their models.

Type 1 gripper :

A cylinder (it can be either hydraulic or pneumatic) attached to the slider (shown in pink color) causes the opening and closing of the gripper and hence permitting it to grasp and release the object.
The slider is connected to the links (shown in yellow color) which forms a slider crank mechanism and thus, is responsible for actuation.

Type 2 gripper :

 In this mechanism, one end of piston of cylinder is attached to rack or say any tooth like mechanical element. This element engages in respective meshing element (here pinion) which is pivoted at one point. As the cylinder actuated, the gripper open and closes as per the motion of the piston. Thus, it creates a parallelogram mechanism.

Type 3 gripper :

In this type of mechanism, a bar is directly connected to the piston of the cylinder responsible for the opening and closing of the gripper.
It is also an example of slider crank mechanism.

Type 4 gripper :

   It is quiet similar to the type 3 gripper. Only the change is in design of mechanism.

Sujit Kadus

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