Design and Fabrication of Bending Machine | Mechanical Engineering Project

Abstract:

The aim of the project is to design and construct a bending machine that will bend different types of jobs. The machine is compact and is portable. The machine is totally made of steel and can be easily carried out at any place, at any time.

Introduction :

We need different types of parts to be bent for different work. The available machines are costly and bulky. However there are some manual machines too but they require too much force to be applied to bend the component. Drawbacks of these machines are lack of accuracy, low productivity and thus resulting severe fatigue in the operator.
This machine is designed based on principle of hydraulic system. Hydraulic load has more power as compared to other types of loads such as electric, pneumatic, etc. By considering product quality, different types of materials are studied and implemented on the parts of the machine making machine more reliable.
There are different types of bending machines. They are classified as belows:
  • Bar bending
  • Channel Bending
  • Rod/ pipe bending
  • Square bending
Rod/pipe Bending : The most famous forming roller method for bending is recommended for all large bends, where centreline radius is at least 4 times the OD of tube. This type can be successfully employed for bending pipes of or heavy wall tubing to smaller radius.
 Circle Bending: This operation is involved with the fact of "spring back" action of some materials after being formed. It is often necessary to use a radius collar which will be having smaller diameter than that of the circle required for its compensation. Actual size can be determined by doing experiments, as "spring back" varies with different materials.
Channel Bending: The same general bending rules which cover forming of channel with "flanges out" also apply when it is formed with "flanges in". Since it is necessary to compress the flanges as they bend inwards, the operation shown below requires more bending pressure than when forming with "flanges out" and it is recommended that the largest possible radius be used to allow for compression of the material.

Construction of Bending Machine:

The bending machine consist of a hydraulic jack, bending pulley, supporting pulleys, frames, springs, frames, etc. Frame structure is fabricated by using MS angles.
Hydraulic Jack: A hydraulic jack with a semi-circular pulley at its front end is fixed on the frame in between two pulleys and below it by calculating the working distance. There is a provision for adjustment of the jack so that any type of shape and curvature can be achieved.
Frame: A flat platform is formed on the top of base structure. Two mounting points are fixed on this platform. During working of the machine, these points are exposed to high lateral force. Hence these mounting points are kept robust. Different diameters of removable pulleys are located in those mounting points. Here you have to note one thing that, diameter of the pulley changes with change in bend radius.
Supporting Pulleys: Depending upon the cross section of the material, the peripheral cross sectional area of the supporting pulleys is kept same. Depending upon the application, the size and shape of pulleys changes.
Springs: Quick retraction springs are attached at the front end of the jack for fast and easy retraction of the jack. The springs are designed such that they do not add any additional pressure for vertical movement of the jack.

Working of Bending Machine: 

The job (say pipe) is inserted in between the supporting pulleys and bending pulley attached to the hydraulic jack as shown in figure. When all the parameters of bending are set, hydraulic jack is operated to achieve required bend. Thus the pipe is bend and your product is ready for its next operations. As explained above, we need different diameters of pulleys for different bend radius.

Applications:

Bending machine has many applications in fabrication, automobile industry, etc. 
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Sujit Kadus

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