Boiled Water Reactor (BWR) Power Plant

In Boiled Water Reactor (BWR) , water is used both as coolant as well as moderator.
The arrangement of boiling water reactor is shown in figure.
Boiled Water Reactor Power Plant |
Boiled Water Reactor Power Plant

It uses enriched Uranium as fuel. These reactors do not need heat exchangers as needed in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) since water is directly converted into saturated steam at about 285 degree centigrade at 70 bar pressure.
For above these reasons, this system is also called as Direct cycle Boiled Water Reactor power plant.
The feed water circulated in the reactor is converted into saturated vapor or steam by transfer of heat energy released in reactor core in fission process. This steam is supplied to the steam turbine in a conventional power plant working on the cycle.
Thus, the mechanical power developed by the turbine is converted into electrical energy by the generator. The exhaust of the steam from the turbine is condensed into condenser. The condensate is returned to the reactor as feed water by feed water pump.

Advantages of Boiled Water Reactor :

1. It eliminates the use of heat exchanger, pressurizer, circulating pump and piping. Therefore, the system is simple and cheap.
2. Efficiency of the system is high.
3. Use of low pressure reactor further reduces cost of the plant.

Disadvantages of Boiled Water Reactor :

1. It cannot meet sudden changes in load on the plant.
2. It has the possibility of radioactive contamination of steam turbine.
3. System requires extensive safety devices against radioactive radiations which are costly.

Sujit Kadus

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