Design and Analysis of Rocket Nozzle

The functional part of rocket viz. rocket nozzle is used to channelize and accelerate the combustion products produced by the burning propellant inside rocket, in such a way that it maximizes the velocity of the exhaust at the exit. to the supersonic velocity. The nozzle converts chemical energy of propellant to kinetic energy without any moving parts. It is basically a tube with variable cross-sectional area.
Generally, nozzles are used to control the flow rate, direction, mass, speed, shape and the pressure of the exhaust stream that emerges from them. The nozzle converts high pressure, low velocity and high temperature gas in the combustion chamber into high velocity of gas of low pressure and temperature thus producing the required thrust for the rocket to propel.
Design and analysis of rocket nozzle |
Design and analysis of Rocket Nozzle

Rocket engine nozzle is propelling nozzle (usually of the de Laval type) used in rocket engine to expand and accelerate the combustion gases produced by burning propellant so that the exhaust gases exit the nozzle at hypersonic velocities. The convergent and divergent type of nozzle is called as de Laval nozzle. Throat is the area with minimum area in convergent divergent nozzle. The divergent part of the nozzle is known as nozzle exit. In the convergent section, the pressure of the exhaust gases will increase and as the hot gases expand through the diverging section attaining high velocities from continuity equation.
The analysis of rocket nozzle involves the concept of steady, one dimensional compressible fluid flow of an ideal gas. The goal of the rocket nozzle design is to accelerate the combustion products to as high exit velocity as possible. This is achieved by designing the necessary geometric nozzle profile with the condition that isentropic flow is considered to be flow that is dependent only upon cross sectional area. Therefore, in actual nozzle it is necessary to minimize the frictional effect, flow disturbances and conditions that can lead to shock losses. In addition, heat transfer losses should be minimize. That means it should be thermal resistant.
In this way, the properties of the flow are near isentropic and are simply affected only by the changing cross sectional area as the fluid flows through the nozzle. Space shuttle uses some of the largest de Laval nozzles in the solid rocket boosters. They are designed so as to optimize the weight and the performance.
In this project study is conducted to study the various configurations and geometries of de Laval nozzle with respect to the available technologies been used in the world. Further an effort is made to analyse the flow of the gases through a space shuttle nozzle using commercially available softwares.

Sujit Kadus

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