Showing posts with label Robotics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Robotics. Show all posts

Mini Project on Robotic Gripper Mechanism

Gripper is a mechanical device which enables us to hold an object to be manipulated. Gripper can be described in much more easier way by thinking its a human hand. Just like fingers of hand, gripper enables us to hold, tighten, release and handle an object. A gripper can be a part of fixed automation system or it may be attached to the robot for performing specific operations.
There are a variety of grippers available in industry.

Operating Principle of Gripper

The opening and closing of fingers of gripper can be actuated either by pivoting or linear/translational movement.
Pivoting Movement : In this movement, the rotation of fingers is concerned with the pivoted points that are fixed for providing opening and closing action. To achieve this movement, it uses linkage mechanism.
Linear/Translational Movement : In this movement, the gripper jaw moves parallel to the gripper body. These grippers are used in most of the applications. These type of grippers are more accurate than other types of grippers.
Mini Project on Robotic Gripper Mechanism |
Linkage Actuation

Linkage Actuation

The design of linkage actuation helps to find out the conversion of the mechanical gripper's force into the gripping force and the time taken by them to actuate the gripper and maximum capability to open the finger.
There are number of designs available for linkage actuation, some of them are shown in above figure.

Now moving towards the video, we will see how the gripper works. Here we will see, few mechanisms of robotic gripper and their models.

Type 1 gripper :

A cylinder (it can be either hydraulic or pneumatic) attached to the slider (shown in pink color) causes the opening and closing of the gripper and hence permitting it to grasp and release the object.
The slider is connected to the links (shown in yellow color) which forms a slider crank mechanism and thus, is responsible for actuation.

Type 2 gripper :

 In this mechanism, one end of piston of cylinder is attached to rack or say any tooth like mechanical element. This element engages in respective meshing element (here pinion) which is pivoted at one point. As the cylinder actuated, the gripper open and closes as per the motion of the piston. Thus, it creates a parallelogram mechanism.

Type 3 gripper :

In this type of mechanism, a bar is directly connected to the piston of the cylinder responsible for the opening and closing of the gripper.
It is also an example of slider crank mechanism.

Type 4 gripper :

   It is quiet similar to the type 3 gripper. Only the change is in design of mechanism.

Types of Robots

Generally, many teachers teaches robot based on Industrial robot, neglecting other types of service robots. Therefore, generally, people when talk about types of robots, they talk about industrial robots. However, industrial robots are not only ones which exist in this world. In this chapter, we are going to study different types of robots that are used in the world.
Types of robots |
Military Robot

So for better understanding we could divide robots into two types viz. based on their application and by their locomotion and kinematics.

Robots based on their Applications:

1. Industrial robots: Industrial robots are used in industrial environment for performing various functions. Usually, they are developed for the applications like material handling, welding, spraying, painting and many more. For more, refer Industrial robots.
2. Domestic robots: Domestic robots are the robots that are used at home. These type of robots include variety of robots such as vacuum cleaners, sweepers, pool cleaners, etc. Also some different categories robots can be used as domestic robots if used in that environment.
3. Military robots: The robots used in military are known as military robots. These types of robots include bomb disposal robots, reconnaissance drones, transportation robots, fighting robots.
4. Service robots: These are the robots that don't fall into other types of usage. These could be different data gathering robots, robots used for research, robots to show off technologies, etc.
5. Space robots: Mars curiosity rover by NASA is the best example of space robot. Also these type of robots are used in International space stations.
6. Entertainment robots: These robots are used for entertainment purpose. These types of robots include from small to big robots like articulated robot arms used as motion simulators.
7. Hobby robots: These are the robots which are made as a hobby purpose. But believe me, this is the type of robot that i like the most. A new innovation can come through these types of robots.
8. Competition robots: These robots are used for competition purpose like line followers, racing robots, sumo-bots that you see during college festivals.

Types of robots by locomotion and kinematics:

These are
1. Stationary robots
  • Cartesian robots
  • Spherical robots
  • Cylindrical robots
  • Articulated robots (Robotic arm)
  • SCARA robots
  • Parallel robots
2. Wheeled robots
  • Single wheeled robot
  • Two wheeled robots
  • Multiple wheeled robots
3. Legged robots
  • Bipedal robots (Humanoid robots)
  • Tripedal robots
  • Quadrupedal robots
  • Hexapod robots
4. Swarm robots
5. Flying robots
6. Mobile spherical robots (robotic balls)
7. Swimming robots

Differences between Industrial Robots and Service Robots

Differences between Industrial Robots and Service Robots |
Differences between Industrial Robots and Service Robots


1. Money Making

Industrial robots have been around since 70's. It is because they have figured out how to make money. On the other hand, as a mature industry, margins are tight and it is challenging for companies  to differentiate.

2. Application Area

The term "industrial robot" is somewhat misleading. In fact, what people refer as industrial robots are robot arms used in manufacturing. 
On the other hand, service robots are everything else but manufacturing. Some of the examples are :
  • Personal robot such  as roomba.
  • Medical robot like DaVinci.
  • Military robot like Daksh, Talon.
  • Logistic robots.

3. Market Data

The best source of data about the robotic industry that we have came across is the World Robotics yearly report done by the International Federation of Robotics (IFR) since 2010.
IFR has split their report in two sections, one for Industrial and other for Service robots.
It is clear from two reports that the type of data available to analyze different industries varies.

4. Market Potential

All the experts agree on the huge potential growth of service robots and the relatively lower growth rate for industrial robots whose fluctuations is more tied to economic conditions.

5. Target Customers

Industrial robots are brought primarily by manufacturers and are most dominant in automotive industry
Types of customers for service robotics are much more diverse. They might be manufacturers, hospitals, military groups. The decision to buy is diverse and sometimes a price tag can't be put on the benefits.

6. Open to the world

Industrial robots are very proprietary. All the controllers use different language and are often closed. This makes the development of third party applications more cumbersome through with the development of  ROS-industrial even industrial robotics are beginning to opening up.
Open source initiatives are yet to reach tipping point in service robotics.

7. Leading Countries

The largest industrial robot manufacturing country is Japan with the big companies like Kawasaki, Fanuc, Yaskawa-Motoman and others.
With respective to service robots, situation is exactly opposite with US leading the way. The US approach is not to build humanoid robot but the robots dedicated to one application.

8. Leveraging Technology

This point is similar to the previous one. Industrial robots use hardware and software that are robotic specific.
The service robotic industry does a much better job at leveraging off-the shelf technologies that have a lower cost and require less customization.

9. Cool Factor

Yes, service robots are much cooler than the industrial robots. Kids get into robotics not to make industrial arms but rather autonomous mobile robots. It is well said, "The service robot industries won't grow because it is cool but because it solves problems."

Introduction to Industrial Robots

Industrial Robots |
Industrial Robots
Robot is defined as, "a reprogrammable, multi-functional manipulator designed to move materials, tools, parts or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for performing a variety of tasks."

Generation of Robots :

1.First generation of robots (dump robots): 

These robots strictly work in a fixed sequence. They do not have any sensors which can take corrective action in case of deviations.

2.Second generation of robots (clever robots) :

These clever robots come with a number of sensors which can take corrective action in case of deviations. They are capable of taking logical decision.

3.Third generation of robots (Intelligent robots) :

These types of robots are still in design stage. They can take strategic and important decisions. They are designed by using the concept of artificial intelligence.

Advantages of Robots :

  • Robots improve quality and consistency of work.
  • Robots increase productivity, safety and efficiency of process.
  • They work continuously without experiencing fatigue or boredome unlike humans.
  • They need no environmental comfort, such as: lighting, air conditioning, ventilation and noise protection.
  • Robots can operate with high degree of accuracy
  • They have repeatable precision at all times.
  • They can have capabilities beyond that of humans.
  • Robots can process multiple tasks simultaneously.

Limitations of Robots :

  • Robots replaces human workers creating economic problems, such as lost salaries and social problems such as dissatisfaction and resentment among workers.
  • Robots lack capability to respond in unpredictable emergencies.
  • Robots have limited capabilities in degrees of freedom, sensors, dexterity, vision system and real time response.
  • Robots are costly due to high initial investment, installation cost, peripheral costs, training cost and programming cost.

Robotics Companies in India

Career Opportunities


Yes, you heard right. India's major leading company TATA makes the robots.
TATA Advanced Systems is into Defence and Robotics.
More you can check out here :


ABB operations in India include 14 manufacturing facilities. The company is serving their customers with more than 23 marketing offices, 8 service centers, 3 logistic warehouses and a large network of over 550 channel partners. The ABB group is increasingly leveraging the Indian operations for products, projects, engineering, services and R&D (Research and Development). 
You can go and look there by yourself the information about the employment opportunities that they are providing to the engineers.
Here is the link :

PARI (Precision Automation Robotics India Limited)

PARI is an Indian company in industrial automation which is involved with robotics. You can see its office situated near the Mumbai-Bangalore Highway or you can also google it. The following is an excerpt from their website.
"PARI, a leading supplier of robotics and automationseeks individuals with core competencies in electrical, mechanical and controls. The industrial automation field is growing at an exceptionally rapid rate. The opportunity for professional development is limitless. If you would like to work with a technologically advanced company in a fast paced challenging environment contam us today. PARI is looking for experienced as well as entry level (fresh) talent. PARI provides training courses for its fresh joiners, with a stipend and emplyoment commitment".
Link for their website:

Kuka Robotics

Kuka robotics is a German based company which is involved in industrial robots and makes multiple axis robots that can have attachments like welding, painting various accessories and also the one that everyone is aware about, pick and place robots.
They promises the excellent research opportunities.
So why to waste much more time, get in touch with them. Here is their website link:

DiFACTO Robotics and Automation

DiFACTO Robotics and Automation is a service oriented company that offers stimulation,offline and shop-floor programming of robots,on site robot training and system design and consultancy service.
It means that you will have to work as an Robot Technician.

HRSL (Hi-Tech Robotic Systemz Limited)

It looks like the people of HRSL have forayed much deeper into robotics their range of innovations include the categories of machine vision, defence robotics, UAV's, humanoids and industrial robotics. One thing I would like to tell about them is, the have succeeded in making India's first assault vehicle telecontrolled i.e. remote controlled.
On their website they have clearly listed requirements as an Engineer R&D (Industrial Robotics), Project Leader MVS & Automation (Electrical), Engineers MVS & Automation (Electrical, Team Leader/Project Leader Robotics & AI, Engineer Robotics & AI.)

Basic Components of Hydraulic System

Hydraulic system which is also known as fluid power system is a power system in which transmission of power takes place through a fluid medium.
Layout of Hydraulic system
Layout of Hydraulic system

The major advantage of this system is that, it avoids the mechanical linkages such as pulleys, gears, ropes, belts. The transmission of power through this system is most convenient and highly efficient.
A hydraulic system has following basic components :

  • Prime mover
  • Pump
  • Control valves
  • Actuators
  • Piping system
  • Working medium i.e. Fluid.
In addition to these components, there are few supporting components for the proper functioning of the system.

  • Filters
  • Strainers
  • Storage tank
  • Heat exchanger
  • Pressure guages
  • Sensors
  • Control devices
  • Accumulators
Each of these components performs their specific function to run the system efficiently.
So let us see the description of the basic components of hydraulic systems.

1. Prime mover :

Prime mover is a device that produces mechanical power. It could be any power producing device like an IC Engine, a turbine or an electric motor. According to the application, typical type of prime mover is selected.

2. Pump :

Pump is driven by the prime mover. Pump is used to pressurize the fluid. Pressure so obtained is of the order of several thousands.

3. Control valves :

High pressure fluid supplied by the pump is required to be supplied for the various components of the system. Hence to control the flow of pressurized fluid control valves are used.
Control valves can be classified as :
  1. Pressure control valve
  2. Flow control valve
  3. Direction control Valve
As the name suggests, these control valves controls their respective parameters.
Pressure control valve controls or we can say limits the pressure flowing through the systems.
Direction control valve controls the direction of the flow by diverting the flow of fluid.
Flow control valve controls the flow and thereby controlling the speed of motion of the actuator.

4. Actuators :

Actuators are called the muscles of the system. They provide motion to the desired parts of the system.
Generally, actuators convert pressurized fluid power into mechanical energy.
Actuators may be of linear type or rotary type.
Linear type actuators consists of single acting or double acting cylinders, telescopic cylinders, etc.
Rotary type actuators consist of hydraulic or pneumatic motor etc.

5. Piping System :

Piping system is like the blood vessel of the hydraulic system. It carries the fluid which is to be supplied to the various parts of the system.
Similar to the fluid supply to various components, return fluid is also carried by the piping system to the reservoir.
Due to high pressures, extreme care should be taken while designing of the pipes.

6. Fluid :

Hydraulic oil is the working fluid of the hydraulic system. 
Hydraulic fluid used in the system has to perform following functions :
  • Transmitting power
  • Moving parts
  • Sealing gaps
  • Heat dissipation.
Hydraulic fluids can be broadly classified in three categories as :
  1. Petroleum based fluids.
  2. Water based fluids.
  3. Synthetic based fluids.
In this chapter we are not discussing about the fluids, so we are not providing brief description about types of hydraulic fluid.

Design And Developement Project Ideas

In last post we have seen Automobile Engineering Project Ideas. Now moving further ahead, we are looking for more project ideas that people are demanding. As per the request of many users, we have decided to post on project ideas that are related to the Design and Development. So let us talk about some Design and Development project ideas.

1.The Study of Flow Condition of Air Jet Weaving Machine.

The purpose of this is to model the air flow of the weft insertion of air jet weaving machines that makes a series of laboratory measurements. Also to create a mathematical function which determines the speed of weft insertion flow without industrial measurement.
Source : Obuda University
Authors : Istvan Patko, Lorant Szabo.

2. Fabrication of Mini Cooling Tower.

In this project, heat is removed from the substance under various controlled conditions. As we all know cooling towers are the most important parts of various chemical plants. The main function of the cooling tower is to reject the heat from it to the atmosphere.
The make-up water is used to replenish the water lost to the evaporation. The hot water from the heat exchangers is sent to the cooling tower. This water exits from the cooling tower and the water is sent back to the heat exchanger and other units for further cooling.

3. Design of Automatic Operated Packaging Machine.

Todays need of Industry is to increase the production within less time and low cost. Considering this point, we came towards a project on an automated packaging machine that is mostly required in various industries. As it is series of repeated action of motions, this system can be automated and applied with high efficiency. Referring the various research papers and journals, some modifications were done on the old machines that resulted fast in operation. Also the new machine was more efficient than the previous one.

4. Design and Construction of Passenger Hovercraft.

Basically hovercraft is a vehicle that travels on the cushion of air trapped under the body to lift. e.g. quad-copter, multi-copter, etc.
Air cushion vehicles can attain higher speeds than the ships or land vehicles because they are subjected to lower frictional forces and thus use much less power.
For a hovercraft, there are three main design groups : Thrust, Lift and Steering System.

5. Design of a foot for a Humanoid.

The aim of this project is to design a new mechanism of a foot for a humanoid.
This project has been done in the collaboration with research center The Cognition and Interaction Lab (COIN) at school of humanity and informatics of the University of Skovde. At first, human foot was studied and an overview was taken about how they work.
A new mechanism was developed using three pneumatic cylinders and was designed in 3D in CAD/CAM software.

Guidance for Roborace Track

Technical events or festivals for engineering colleges is not a new thing. Every year there are lots of events, competition with lot of fun. Every department, every coordinator student of respective event tries to give their full potential to make the event successful. But still many of those who are new to these events (Yes, you should have some juniors for help and also for learning as we do in our Industry) are lack of what things do they need to do, what is their task, what should be done for its success.

Robots ... The most important part of today's life. And Roborace is the first step for engineers to get introduced into robotics. So if you going to arrange Roborace then you need to give participants as much as possible tasks to complete the track within short interval of time. But what if you stuck in thinking which more tasks should be implemented in the track. Don't worry we are here to teach you, tell you the important tasks ( you can also say them as obstacles) that can be implemented on your Roborace track.
Here we go with the list of tasks:
1. Slopes
2. Marbles
3. Oil rig
4. Waterfall
5. Banking angles
6. Hanging bridge
7. Speed breakers
8. Circular turns
9. Obstacles on path
10. Sand
11. Powder or Lime
12. Motor operated propeller

Details of each task:
1. Slopes: Generally standard slopes are in the range of 30-45 degree. Everyone should note that slope angles should not exceed than given standard angle range. For the start, 30 degree angle is enough but if you are ending the race with slope then you should consider to increase the slope angle.
I would prefer to give an angle more than 45 degrees rather 60 degree would be perfect. And if you add speed breaker on this large slope angle then it will be like 'Piece of a cherry on an ice cream'.
2. Marbles: Marbles, one of the greatest obstacles on the track. They reduces the contact of the wheels with the ground surface and accordingly reduces friction, which causes the robot to slip from the surface and try to push it away from the track. So this can be considered as one of the best part of obstacles.
3. Oil rig: When wheels of your robot passes from oil, oil gets stuck to the wheels and due to high viscosity of oil, it becomes harder for wheels to get grip on the track surface. So you can consider to put an oil rig in your track.
4. Waterfall: Waterfall can be used to reduce the speed of the robot. Higher the speed of the waterfall, greater the resistance to the robot for passing the waterfall. One should take care that short-circuit should not happen during the match because as we know water is a good conductor of electricity.
5. Banking Angles: These are slightly different than slopes. As we know about banking of roads, just like that banking angles are made on the track so that the robot will try to go out of the track. Lenght of banking angle track and banking angles can be decides by your own as per requirements.
6. Hanging Bridge: Hanging bridge is the most commonly used task. As the name suggests, hanging bridge is the bridge which is supposed to hang when any object moves through it. It can be made with the help of wooden strips and rope.
7. Speed Breakers: Speed breakers are used to reduce the speed of the robot. If your track is of limited space then you can consider to add speed breakers on it.
8. Circular turns: Everyone likes to drive their bike on curved path. It is just like that. If your track contains some turns or circular structure then one should think about this.
9. Obstacles on path: Obstacles like pillers can be put on the track to make zigzag path for the robot. This will surely reduce too much speed of the robot and increase its time to complete the tasks.
10. Sand: Sand with small stones can be put on the track to make path slippery in some manner.
11. Powder or Lime: Powder or Lime can be put after oil rig for slippery path.
12. Motor operated propeller: A propeller or propeller like instrument mounted on shaft of motor is used in the track. A motor with low rpm (generally 5-10 rpm) is used to rotate the propeller. The purpose of motor operated propeller is to reduce the speed of the robot for completing the track. When the propeller is above the surface of the track, robot will not be able to go ahead till it comes in parallel or below with the surface of the track.