Mechanics of Metal Cutting

Any type of cutting process involves the tool, workpiece, chips, and of course, cutting fluids. Mechanics of metal cutting is the process of metal cutting in which various observations are made according to different parameters.

Mechanics of Metal Cutting |
Mechanics of Metal Cutting

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Mechanics of Metal Cutting

For removing the metal from the workpiece, a wedge-shaped tool is constrained to move relative to the workpiece so that it can remove the metal in the form of chips.

During any cutting action the following observations are made:

  • The removed material/metal is in the form of continuous chips or discontinuous chips.
  • Thickness of the chip is more than the depth to cut.
  • The hardness of the chip is also greater than the hardness of the base metal.
  • There is no metal flow in the normal direction of chip flow.
  • The chips are formed due to the process of deformation or plastic flow of material, which takes place by a phenomenon called slip.
  • Flow lines are observed on the side and back of a chip which indicates that cutting involves a shearing mechanism.
  • Because of the friction between the tool and the workpiece, a large amount of heat is generated. This large amount of heat can be reduced by having a sharp cutting edge and better tool finish, increased speed and improved tool geometry, use of best-cutting fluids and much more.


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