What is Mean by Hydraulic Press?
A hydraulic press is a machine press that uses a hydraulic cylinder to generate a compressive force.
Hydraulic systems use Pascal’s law which states that
The external static pressure applied on a confined liquid is distributed or transmitted evenly throughout the liquid in all directions.
In simple terms, we can say that pressure applied to an enclosed fluid will be transmitted without a change in magnitude to every point of the fluid. The pressure at any point in the fluid is equal in all directions.
Pascal’s law is given by the formula, F=P*A
F= force applied,
P= Pressure transmitted
A= Cross-sectional area
In hydraulic press, the same principle is used for lifting heavy weight by the application of much smaller force.
Main components of Hydraulic Press System
The main component of the hydraulic press are
- Hydraulic Motor
- Reservoir Tank
- Direction Control Valve
- Pressure relief valve
- Pressure gauge
- Limit switch
- Hydraulic cylinder
- Pressing plate.
|Basic Components of Hydraulic Press System|
Hydraulic hose is used to convey the hydraulic fluid to or between the hydraulic components.
A hydraulic motor is used to pump the hydraulic fluid in the system. The motor is usually equipped with a pump for pumping purposes.
Read more: Different types of Hydraulic Pumps.
Hydraulic oil is stored in the reservoir tank.
Direction control valve
Direction control valves (DCVs) are used to control the direction of the actuator/cylinder. Generally, a manually controlled DCV is used in the hydraulic press.
Read more: Direction Control Valves and their types
Pressure relief valve
It is used to control the pressure in the system.
It is used to control the position of the piston of the cylinder. It prevents the cylinder to travel post a predetermined point.
This is a mechanical actuator that is used to give a unidirectional force through a unidirectional stroke.
Read more: Different types of Hydraulic Cylinders.
Circuit Diagram and Simulation of a Hydraulic Press
Working Principle of Hydraulic Press
|Working Principle of Hydraulic Press|
The working principle of hydraulic press is based on Pascal’s law which states that the intensity of pressure in a static fluid is transmitted equally in all directions.
A hydraulic press consists of two different cylinders of two different diameters.
One cylinder is of smaller diameter that contains a plunger and another cylinder is of larger diameter that contains Ram.
These two cylinders are connected through a pipe/hose which contains hydraulic fluid through which pressure is transmitted.
When a smaller force F is applied on the plunger, pressure is produced in the liquid.
As per Pascal’s law, this pressure is transmitted equally in all directions and act on the Ram. Thus, the Ram is pushed forward and heavier objects can be easily lifted.
Applications of Hydraulic press
- Manufacturing Industry
Hydraulic presses are widely used for automotive folding and forming applications. Brake pads, sealing components, insert molding, truck bed liners, electrical connectors and insulators, fuel delivery parts, etc. are the vehicle parts manufactured using hydraulic presses.
- Manufacturing Electrical Parts
These are widely used to assemble the housings and switches used in switching stations. Thermostats are also manufactured with the help of a hydraulic press.
- Military Applications
Presses are used in most of the air force bases. They are commonly used for loading the shells.
- Building Aircrafts
In the Aerospace industry, they are used for metal forming and machinery fabricating processes. Windshield wiper blades, gear assemblies, airplane body panels, and wings are built using hydraulic presses.
- Metal forming operations
- Deep drawing operations
- Punching operations
- Blanking operations
- Molding operations
- Clinching operations
- Forging operations