The functional part of the rocket viz. rocket nozzle is used to channelize and accelerate the combustion products produced by the burning propellant inside the rocket, in such a way that it maximizes the velocity of the exhaust at the exit. to the supersonic velocity.
The nozzle converts the chemical energy of the propellant to kinetic energy without any moving parts. It is basically a tube with a variable cross-sectional area.
Generally, nozzles are used to control the flow rate, direction, mass, speed, shape, and pressure of the exhaust stream that emerges from them.
The nozzle converts high pressure, low velocity, and high-temperature gas in the combustion chamber into a high velocity of gas of low pressure and temperature thus producing the required thrust for the rocket to propel.
|Design and analysis of Rocket Nozzle|
Rocket engine nozzle is propelling nozzle (usually of the de Laval type) used in a rocket engine to expand and accelerate the combustion gases produced by burning propellant so that the exhaust gases exit the nozzle at hypersonic velocities.
The convergent and divergent type of nozzle is called as de Laval nozzle. The throat is the area with minimum area in the convergent-divergent nozzle.
The divergent part of the nozzle is known as the nozzle exit. In the convergent section, the pressure of the exhaust gases will increase, and as the hot gases expand through the diverging section attaining high velocities from the continuity equation.
Analysis of Rocket Nozzle
The analysis of the rocket nozzle involves the concept of a steady, one-dimensional compressible fluid flow of an ideal gas.
The goal of the rocket nozzle design is to accelerate the combustion products to as high exit velocity as possible. This is achieved by designing the necessary geometric nozzle profile with the condition that isentropic flow is considered to be the flow that is dependent only upon the cross-sectional area.
Therefore, in an actual nozzle, it is necessary to minimize the frictional effect, flow disturbances, and conditions that can lead to shock losses. In addition, heat transfer losses should be minimized. That means it should be thermal resistant.
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In this way, the properties of the flow are near isentropic and are simply affected only by the changing cross-sectional area as the fluid flows through the nozzle. Space shuttle uses some of the largest de Laval nozzles in the solid rocket boosters. They are designed so as to optimize the weight and the performance.
In this project, a study is conducted to study the various configurations and geometries of the de Laval nozzle with respect to the available technologies being used in the world.
Further, an effort is made to analyze the flow of the gases through a space shuttle nozzle using commercially available software.